Table 2.

DDCS length and width with the corresponding normalized experimental parameters.

normalized experimental parameters
displacement magnitude (mm)12
strain magnitude (%)13.0 ± 1.126.7 ± 2.2
strain rate during loading/unloading cycle0.7 ± 0.1% per min1.3 ± 0.1% per min
strain rate during ramp to failure0.7 ± 0.1% per min0.7 ± 0.1% per min
no. cyclesone (control)50one (control)50
no. samples6666
DDCS length
initial length (mm)7.53 ± 0.667.78 ± 0.657.46 ± 0.607.62 ± 0.64
stress-free length after cyclic loading (mm)7.80 ± 0.658.51 ± 0.668.29 ± 0.639.19 ± 0.64
% increase in length after cyclic loading3.6 ± 0.69.4 ± 0.811. 2 ± 1.120.6 ± 1.8
DDCS width
initial width (mm)4.83 ± 0.234.99 ± 0.194.94 ± 0.584.93 ± 0.31
width after cyclic loading (mm)4.81 ± 0.244.60 ± 0.204.76 ± 0.574.05 ± 0.38
% decrease in width after cyclic loading0.5 ± 0.37.7 ± 3.23.8 ± 1.718.0 ± 3.9