Nowadays, thanks to the successful discoveries in the biomedical field achieved in the last two decades, a deeper understanding about the complexity of mechanistic aspects of different pathological processes has been obtained. As a consequence, even the standard therapeutic protocols have undergone a vast redesign. In fact, the awareness about the necessity to progress towards a combined multitherapy in order to potentially increase the final healing chances has become a reality. One of the crucial elements of this novel approach is that large amounts of detailed information are highly needed and in vivo imaging techniques represent one of the most powerful tools to visualize and monitor the pathological state of the patient. To this scope, due to their unique features, nanostructured materials have emerged as attractive elements for the development of multifunctional tools for diagnosis and therapy. Hence, in this review, the most recent and relevant advances achieved by applying multifunctional nanostructures in multimodal theranosis of different diseases will be discussed. In more detail, the preparation and application of single multifunctional nano-radiotracers based on iron oxides and enabling PET/MRI dual imaging will be firstly detailed. After that, especially considering their highly promising clinical potential, the preparation and application of multifunctional liposomes useful for multimodal imaging and therapy will be reviewed. In both cases, a special focus will be set on the application of such a multifunctional nanocarriers in cancer as well as cardiovascular diseases.
One contribution of 12 to a theme issue ‘Multifunctional nanostructures for diagnosis and therapy of diseases’.
- © 2016 The Author(s)
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